El pasado 25 de junio, el Centro Internacional de Arreglo de Diferencias relativas a Inversiones, (Ciadi), comunicó la renuncia de Gary Born, árbitro internacional en varios arbitrajes de las renovables y miembro del Tribunal del concluido arbitraje Masdar contra España. La renuncia se produce tras dos propuestas de recusación presentadas por España y rechazadas por el tribunal. Esta circunstancia nos da pie para analizar la composición de los tribunales Ciadi en los arbitrajes de las renovables contra España, dejándonos conclusiones como la preferencia de esta última por árbitros franceses, británicos o italianos; o que 10 de los árbitros -hasta la renuncia de Born- repiten en varios procedimientos.

En el caso de la demanda de arbitraje interpuesta por Mathias Kruck y otros, el Gobierno de España presentó una solicitud de recusación el pasado 13 de febrero contra Gary Born. A finales de mes, la propuesta fue rechazada por los otros dos miembros del tribunal: Vaughan Lowe y Zachary Douglas.

Este arbitraje fue registrado por Ciadi el 4 de junio de 2015 e invoca el Tratado de la Carta de la Energía.

En el procedimiento iniciado por las alemanas KS Invest GmbH and TLS Invest GmbH y registrado por Ciadi el 16 de junio de 2015, la Abogacía General del Estado presentó la propuesta de recusación de Gary Born el 14 de febrero de 2018. El 30 de abril, la solicitud de recusación fue rechazada por los otros dos miembros del tribunal: Bruno Simma y Daniel Bethlehem.

La defensa de ambos demandantes corre a cargo de Gómez-Acebo & Pombo (Madrid) y King & Spalding (París). La Abogacía General del Estado español defiende a España.

La propuesta de recusación de España, según información de la publicación especializada Global Arbitration Review, podría estar relacionada con el desacuerdo manifestado por Born en una demanda de inversiones similar, pero contra la República Checa (“Born resigns from solar cases against Spain following challenge“, Tom Jones, Global Arbitration Review, 28.06.2018)

Los tribunales de los arbitrajes contra España en el Ciadi

Gary Born no ha sido el primer árbitro que ha presentado su renuncia en los arbitrajes Ciadi contra España por las reformas normativas de las renovables. En el arbitraje interpuesto por la alemana SolEs Badajoz, el búlgaro Stanimir Alexandrov (designado por la demandante) y la francesa Anna Joubin-Bret (designada por España) renunciaron en octubre de 2017 a formar parte del tribunal. Alexandrov ya formó parte del tribunal Eiser.

Asimismo, Teresa Cheng (china) renunció, el pasado 20 de abril de 2018, a formar parte del Comité ad hoc formado con ocasión del procedimiento de anulación interpuesto por España contra el laudo Eiser.

Árbitros franceses para España, estadounidenses para las demandantes

Por otro lado, en relación con las preferencias sobre los árbitros de los tribunales Ciadi por las reformas energéticas llevadas a cabo por el Gobierno español, la defensa de España parece preferir árbitros de nacionalidad francesa (8 designaciones), italiana y británica (con 5 designaciones cada uno).

Sin embargo, los árbitros de nacionalidad estadounidense ocupan el primer puesto de las preferencias de las compañías demandantes (6 designaciones), canadiense (4 designaciones) y argentina (3 designaciones).

Árbitros que se repiten

Los presidentes del tribunal son en su mayoría británicos (10 designaciones) y no es raro encontrar al mismo árbitro en varios arbitrajes. Hasta la renuncia de Gary Born, el árbitro estadounidense era el que más designaciones en este tipo de procedimientos acumulaba: tres. Otros árbitros como Óscar Garibaldi, Christopher Greenwood, Vaughan Lowe, J. R. Crawford, Lawrence Collins, Zachary Douglas, Francisco Orrego Vicuña, Bruno Simma o Eduardo Zuleta forman parte del tribunal de dos procedimientos distintos.

Listado de procedimientos y composición de tribunales Ciadi

DCM Energy:
Carole MALINVAUD (French) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Oscar M. GARIBALDI (U.S., Argentine) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Pierre-Marie DUPUY (French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Portigon:
President: Felipe BULNES SERRANO (Chilean) – Appointed by the Chairman of the Administrative Council
Arbitrators: Albert Jan VAN DEN BERG (Dutch) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Giorgio SACERDOTI (Italian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Sevilla Beheer:
President: Raëd FATHALLAH (Canadian, Lebanese) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Rudolf DOLZER (German) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Attila TANZI (Italian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Infracapital:
President: Jose Emilio NUNES PINTO (Brazilian) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Peter D. CAMERON (British) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Luis GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA (Mexican) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Sun-Flower Olmeda:
President: Christopher GREENWOOD (British) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: O. Thomas JOHNSON (U.S.) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Marcelo G. KOHEN (Argentine) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Eurus Energy:
President: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: Oscar M. GARIBALDI (U.S., Argentine) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Andrea GIARDINA (Italian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Landesbank Baden-Württemberg:
President: Christopher GREENWOOD (British) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Charles PONCET (Swiss) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Rodrigo OREAMUNO (Costa Rican) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Watkins Holdings:
President:
Cecil W.M. ABRAHAM (Malaysian) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: Michael C. PRYLES (Australian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Hélène RUIZ FABRI (French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Hydro Energy 1:
President: Lawrence COLLINS (British) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: Peter REES (British) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Rolf KNIEPER (German) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

SolEs Badajoz:
President: Joan E. DONOGHUE (U.S.) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: David A.R. WILLIAMS (New Zealand) – Appointed by the Claimant(s) – appointed following the resignation of Stanimir A. ALEXANDROV (Bulgarian)
Giorgio SACERDOTI (Italian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

OperaFund Eco-Invest SICAV:
President: Karl-Heinz BÖCKSTIEGEL (German) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: August REINISCH (Austrian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Philippe SANDS (British, French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

E.ON:
President: Mark A. KANTOR (U.S.) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Laurence BOISSON DE CHAZOURNES (Swiss, French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Cavalum SGPS:
President: Lawrence COLLINS (British) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: David R. HAIGH (Canadian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Daniel BETHLEHEM (British) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

JGC Corporation:
President: Hi-Taek SHIN (Korean) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Rudolf DOLZER (German) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Mónica PINTO (Argentine) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

KS Invest GmbH and TLS Invest GmbH:
President: Bruno SIMMA (German, Austrian) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: Gary B. BORN (U.S.) – Appointed by the Claimant(s) / resigns
Daniel BETHLEHEM (British) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Mathias Kruck:
President: Vaughan LOWE (British) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: Gary B. BORN (U.S.) – Appointed by the Claimant(s) / resigns
Zachary DOUGLAS (Australian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Cube Infrastructure Fund SICAV:
President: Vaughan LOWE (British) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: James SPIGELMAN (Australian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Christian TOMUSCHAT (German) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

BayWa:
President: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Horacio A. GRIGERA NAÓN (Argentine) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Loretta MALINTOPPI (Italian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

9REN Holding:
President: Ian BINNIE (Canadian) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: David R. HAIGH (Canadian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
V.V. VEEDER (British) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

STEAG GmbH:
President: Eduardo ZULETA (Colombian) – Appointed by the Chairman of the Administrative Counci
Arbitrators: Guido Santiago TAWIL (Argentine) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Pierre-Marie DUPUY (French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Stadtwerke München GmbH:
President: Jeswald W. SALACUSE (U.S.) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Kaj HOBÉR (Swedish) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Zachary DOUGLAS (Australian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

RWE Innogy GmbH:
President: Samuel WORDSWORTH (British) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: Judd L. KESSLER (U.S.) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Anna JOUBIN-BRET (French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

RENERGY:
President: Bruno SIMMA (German, Austrian) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: Christoph H. SCHREUER (Austrian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Philippe SANDS (British, French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

InfraRed Environmental Infrastructure:
President: Stephen L. DRYMER (Canadian) – Appointed by the Secretary-General
Arbitrators: William W. PARK (Swiss, U.S.) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Pierre-Marie DUPUY (French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

NextEra Energy Global Holding:
President: Donald M. MCRAE (Canadian, New Zealand) – Appointed by the Parties
Arbitrators: L. Yves FORTIER (Canadian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Laurence BOISSON DE CHAZOURNES (Swiss, French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Masdar Solar: /concluido/
President: John BEECHEY (British) – Appointed by the Chairman of the Administrative Council
Arbitrators: Gary B. BORN (U.S.) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Brigitte STERN (French) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Eiser: /concluido/ procedimiento de anulación abierto/
President: John R. CROOK (U.S.) – Appointed by the Chairman of the Administrative Council
Arbitrators: Stanimir A. ALEXANDROV (Bulgarian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Campbell Alan MCLACHLAN (New Zealand) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

Comité ad hoc del procedimiento de anulación:
President: Ricardo RAMÍREZ HERNÁNDEZ (Mexican)
Members: Makhdoom Ali KHAN (Pakistani) – appointed following the resignation of Teresa CHENG (Chinese).
Dominique HASCHER (French)

Antin:/concluido/
President: Eduardo ZULETA (Colombian) – Appointed by the Chairman of the Administrative Council
Arbitrators: Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
J. Christopher THOMAS (Canadian) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

RREEF Infrastructure:
President: Alain PELLET (French) – Appointed by the Chairman of the Administrative Council
Arbitrators: Robert VOLTERRA (Canadian) – Appointed by the Claimant(s)
Pedro NIKKEN (Venezuelan) – Appointed by the Respondent(s)

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